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Interplanetary Exploration

New Horizons Awakens

December 6, 2014 by

If everything has gone according to its meticulous plan, by the time you are reading this NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft will have awoken from its electronic hibernation for the last time and begun its careful preparations to encounter Pluto in July of 2015.

Maybe I should back up for those that aren’t familiar with New Horizons, or just want a little recap:

New Horizons is the name of a NASA spacecraft and mission to complete a fly-by mission of Pluto and its moons, and then on to view other Kuiper-Belt objects. New Horizons will give us shiny new photos of our favorite dwarf planet and a wealth of other scientific data. It’s about time, too. I mean, just look at the current best image we have of what we–at least  used to–consider 1/9th of our solar system’s planetary awesomeness:

Yuck! And NASA was impressed enough to brag about these “most detailed and dramatic images ever taken of the distant dwarf planet“. I’m looking forward to which adjectives they’ll use when we get real images courtesy of New Horizons. But I digress.

On January 19, 2006, New Horizons lifted-off from its Cape Canaveral launchpad and screamed into the heavens. In fact, nothing before or since has left the Earth with such a sense of urgency. New Horizons holds the record for the fastest launch of any spacecraft. It left the Earth with a velocity of 36,373 miles per hour (58,356 kilometers/hour), fast enough to propel it not just out of the Earth’s orbit, but completely out of the solar system (referred to as a solar escape velocity).

Subsequently, New Horizons continued to voyage towards its 2015 encounter with Pluto. Along the way, it came within 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) of Jupiter, on February 28, 2007, and actually used its proximity to gain a gravity assist boost from the massive gas giant. This gave New Horizons a speed boost of about 9,000 miles per hour (14,000 kilometers/hour). Taking advantage of that graviational slingshot, the voyage to Pluto was shortened by three full years. Score! Free energy!

New Horizons zoomed along, passing Saturn’s orbit in June of 2008, Uranus’s in March of 2011, and then Neptune’s in August of this year.

Next up: Pluto.

Throughout its journey, New Horizons has gone through hibernation/wake cycles more than a dozen times, in fact, spending about 2/3 of its time in an electronic slumber. During hibernation, most of the craft’s systems are powered down or entered into an extremely low-functioning state. This “reduced wear and tear on the spacecraft’s electronics, it lowered operations costs and freed up NASA Deep Space Network tracking and communication resources for other missions”.  Today, however, New Horizons is waking for good.

Beginning in February, the main observation objectives begin. Around the beginning of May, New Horizons will be capturing images of Pluto exceeding the resolution that Hubble was able to produce. For the next two months, Pluto will become more accessible to all of the spacecraft’s instruments. The closest approach is projected for July 14, where New Horizons will be within 6,200 miles (10,000 kilometers) of Pluto. New Horizons’s Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) is expected to capture images on the scale of 50 meters per pixel and accomplish a handful of other primary and secondary scientific objectives.

But wait, there’s more!

In addition to Pluto, New Horizons will be observing and recording images and data from Pluto’s known moons: Charon, Hydra, Nix, Styx, and Kerberos.

And that’s still not all. Remember how I mentioned that New Horizons is on a solar system escape trajectory? That means the craft is going to continue hurtling away from the Earth and Sun, away from Pluto, and out beyond the ends of our solar system and into intergalactic space. Included in the craft and mission design, is fly-by opportunities for one ore more Kuipier-Belt Objects (KBOs), the residents of the Kuiper Belt. If you’re not familiar with the Kuiper Belt, think asteroid belt except much larger but instead of rocky asteroids, these bodies consist more of frozen gases such as methane, ammonia, and water. (Some of the moons of our solar system are believed to be former residents of the Kuiper Belt, but that’s another story for another time.) The ability to complete this mission will depend on targetable candidates and remaining fuel supplies.

After all of this, New Horizons slips into the furthest reaches of the Sun’s influence, the fascinating realm known as the outer heliosphere, including the heliosheath and heliopause (again, another story/another time). If the craft is still alive at this point, New Horizons will continue the work of the Voyagers in mapping this interesting environment.

That’s it for today. Stay tuned for updates on this historical mission, and much, much more!


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Awakening

December 1, 2014 by

 

But that’s not all that will reawaken on December 6th.

 


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Alien Footprints

December 18, 2013 by

Ever wondered about the track’s humanity has left on other worlds? If so, you’ll probably appreciate this infographic from Karl Tate and Space.com.



Source Space.com: All about our solar system, outer space and exploration

It’s a fairly intuitive image, so there’s not a lot I need to say. I’m jealous of the miles of tracks that were laid down by the Apollo astronauts in their moon buggies. Could you imagine?

I hope to live long enough to see just as many human-driven miles on Mars.


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If video doesn’t load, please refresh this page.


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The latest Curiosity status report indicates that the mysterious shiny object next to the rover “appears to be a shred of plastic material, likely benign, but it has not been definitively identified.”

To proceed cautiously, the team is continuing the investigation for another day before deciding whether to resume processing of the sample in the scoop. Plans include imaging of surroundings with the Mastcam.

A sample of sand and dust scooped up on Sol 61 remains in the scoop. Plans to transfer it from the scoop into other chambers of the sample-processing device were postponed as a precaution during planning for Sol 62 after the small, bright object was detected in an image from the Mast Camera (Mastcam).

I still attest that Curiosity should zap the thing with ChemCam.

(This might explain why I’m a blogger and not a NASA engineer.)


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The Mars Curiosity rover tweeted (of course it tweets!) the following earlier this afternoon:

 

Today, Curiosity’s robotic arm reached down and scooped up its first sample of Martian dirt. Its cameras captured the historic moment, but caught something else too. There, among countless grains of reddish-orange sand, a single shimmering something caught the eyes of the image analysts back home on Earth.

Can you see it?
(Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS)

How about now?
(Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS and 46BLYZ)

Even clicking those images and looking at them full-size still doesn’t offer much more in the way of a better look. It’s definitely different than the soil and appears metallic, but that’s about all we can make out. NASA isn’t sure what it is yet either, which I think makes it more exciting. As a result they’ve temporarily halted anymore scooping:

Curiosity’s first scooping activity appeared to go well on Oct. 7. Subsequently, the rover team decided to refrain from using the rover’s robotic arm on Oct. 8 due to the detection of a bright object on the ground that might be a piece from the rover. Instead of arm activities during the 62nd Martian day, or sol, of the mission, Curiosity is acquiring additional imaging of the object to aid the team in identifying the object and assessing possible impact, if any, to sampling activities.

Curiosity even imaged the object with its ChemCam (Chemistry and Camera), but the raw image doesn’t offer much more than the MastCam images:


(Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL)

It looks a bit less metallic in this grayscale image, perhaps more like plastic. To me it looks like a discarded shell from someone’s shrimp cocktail. (But that’s just me!)

Hey, did you know that ChemCam also has a built-in laser? It totally does. The purpose of the instrument is to zap rocks with a laser while the camera images the resulting plasma created from the vaporized rock. It can then use the images to analyze the composition and other information about that rock.

It’s my firm belief that Curiosity should zap whatever this unknown object is.  For science!


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Exciting (and historic!) news came to the world via the space-front yesterday. A major announcement was made by Bellevue, Washington-based, entrepreneurial start-up, Planetary Resources. Yesterday morning, at Seattle’s Museum of Flight, they unveiled their plans — plans which up until now had existed primarily in the realm of science fiction: they intend to commercially explore and mine asteroids robotically.

So who are Planetary Resources, and do they have the… well, planetary resources to pull off such a feat?

Planetary Resources emerged from the cocoon of an organization, Arkyd Astronautics, which was founded in late-2010 by Dr. Peter Diamandis (spaceflight entrepreneur, founder of the X Prize Foundation) and Eric Anderson (founder of the commercial spaceflight/space tourism corporation, Space Adventures). If not there at the start-up, Chris Lewicki (a former NASA Mars Phoenix Lander mission manager) quickly came on board as president and chief engineer. They began very quietly, offering employment for engineers and other professionals and presenting themselves as devoted to  developing “disruptive technologies for the commercial robotic exploration of space”.

Then there are the prominent billionaire investors and advisors, including according to their April 18 teaser press release:

Google’s Larry Page & Eric Schmidt, Ph.D.; film maker & explorer James Cameron; Chairman of Intentional Software Corporation and Microsoft’s former Chief Software Architect Charles Simonyi, Ph.D.; Founder of Sherpalo and Google Board of Directors founding member K. Ram Shriram; and Chairman of Hillwood and The Perot Group Ross Perot, Jr.

If there is a group of people with the potential, background, and resources to make this venture a reality, I think we’re looking at it.

So what’s the plan here; plop some robotic miners on an asteroid, bring home a lode of precious metals, and sell it for profit? Yes and no. They claim their primary purpose is based on their vision, not a return on investment. That said, the potential return on investment is huge, even if it takes one heck of an initial investment to get to that point. If that claimed motivation is truly the case, I have extremely high hopes for Planetary Resources. The greatest breakthroughs and advancements, those technological leaps that change our world, generally don’t emerge out of a profit-plan. They bloom from inspiration and a yearning to do big things, to follow one’s passions wherever they might take them, no matter the cost. This venture can afford to follow those dreams. And while they will face many challenges along the way, as long as they stay motivated by their vision I don’t foresee them limited into accomplishing it.

Here’s a quick run-down of their initial plan:

They will begin by launching and deploying a number of small space telescopes — already developed under the Arkyd name — that will find, observe, and characterize near-Earth asteroids (NEOs, Near Earth Objects). The first of these is slated to go up within the next 24 months. Once asteroid targets have been selected, probes will be sent to them to begin mining operations.

Interestingly, their first mining goal won’t be to see what precious metals they can extract; their first targeted material will be water and other materials that can be used as supplies in space operations (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.). When you consider the costs of launching supplies from Earth into space, it’s overwhelming. During the historic press conference, former NASA astronaut and Planetary Resources adviser, Tom Jones, pointed out that carrying a single liter of water to the International Space Station costs approximately $20,000 USD! With such tremendous shipping costs, there’s little difference in the cost of putting a kilogram of gold or a liter of water into space — virtually all of the cost is fuel to get into orbit. So with that idea, turning asteroids into supply depots would be extremely valuable, and drastically reduce the cost of space programs.

This will also allow Planetary Resources, and other companies that might emerge between now and then, the opportunity to extract other natural resources to return to Earth. Asteroids hold the potential to make some of Earth’s rarest materials abundant, and acquiring them for use on Earth could rapidly transform our technology and infrastructure.

If you want to delve deeper into the hows and technical details of the project, you can check out the FAQ on Planetary Resources’s website and watch the archived webcast of their groundbreaking press conference.

Again, I feel highly inspired by all of this. I feel extremely lucky to live in a time when exciting things like this begin to grow legs (I hope things move quickly enough that I will live to see humans exist as a true space-faring species).  The challenges will be immense, and I don’t even want to consider the up-front economics involved, but I believe now is the time to take this step forward — and whatever Planetary Resources undertakes and no matter how far they go, we’re headed in the right direction.


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CASSINI MISSION from Chris Abbas on Vimeo. – *Reload Page if video doesn’t load.* -


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Pioneer Non-Anomaly

April 21, 2012 by

Pioneer 10 and 11 launched in 1972 and 1973, respectively, and were Earthkind’s  first explorers of the outer planets and emissaries to deep space.  Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to pass through the asteroid belt and observe Jupiter up-close, providing us with details of the gas giant’s interior, atmosphere, magnetic fields, and some of the most breath-taking images of Jupiter we had ever seen. Pioneer 11 wasn’t far behind, and after making its own observations of Jupiter, it went on to Saturn to open our eyes to the mighty ringed planet in the same way Pioneer 10 had done for Jupiter. (But this isn’t a story about the accomplishments of the Pioneer program; I’ll save that for another day.)

In addition to all of the data and images sent back, however, those two Pioneers also sent back a mystery. As early as 1980, it was noticed that the spacecrafts were experiencing an acceleration force toward the sun of .000000000874 m/s2 (meters per second, per second). To be clear, this does not mean the Pioneers are heading back towards the Sun. Pioneer 10 and 11 are cruising away from the Sun at a speed of around 132,000 kilometers per hour (82,000 miles per hour) and 175,000 kilometers (110,000 miles per hour), respectively, and this force is 10 billion times smaller than the acceleration we feel from the Earth’s gravitational pull. Nonetheless, the force is real and our instruments and techniques are precise enough to notice.

Many plausible causes were considered to explain the anomaly, including:

perturbations from the gravitational attraction of planets and smaller bodies in the solar system; radiation pressure, the tiny transfer of momentum when photons impact the spacecraft; general relativity; interactions between the solar wind and the spacecraft; possible corruption to the radio Doppler data; wobbles and other changes in Earth’s rotation; outgassing or thermal radiation from the spacecraft; and the possible influence of non-ordinary or dark matter.

In 1994, a thorough, long-term, collaborative study was undertaken to try and solve the anomaly. Initial results from that study were released in 1998, with a detailed analysis following in 2002. All known systematics were tested and calculated, yet that 8.74±1.33×10−10 m/s2 deceleration force remained. The origin of the anomaly was still unaccounted for, though the leading theory was that it was the result of anisotropic thermal radiation (don’t let the big words intimidate you, this just means heat was being radiated from the Pioneers in a certain direction). In 2004, another paper was published, proposing a deep space mission to solve the anomaly once-and-for-all.

But now, that expensive deep-space mission won’t be necessary, according to a paper just submitted by astrophysicist Slava Turyshev and his team of scientists and engineers, with thanks, in no small part, to The Planetary Society and its members.

With funds provided by The Planetary Society, Turyshev and his team were able to collect and compile great volumes of data from the two Pioneer missions. The data had to come from a variety of different sources and came in any number of formats, media, and condition. According to Bruce Betts, Director of Projects at The Planetary Society:

“This was not an easy (or quick) task. These missions lasted for more than 30 years. Imagine all the people, computing formats, and hardcopy and electronic storage devices involved over that period, and you’ll start to get an idea of the problem.”

Think of what you would have to go through if I handed you a 5.25″ floppy disk that contained… well, it couldn’t contain much compared to the amount of data we exchange today, but whatever it was, it was something you needed. Imagine trying to find the hardware to read the disk, and then the intermediary hardware and software that would be required to get the data from the disk onto one of today’s modern machines so you could even utilize it. If you consider how much technology has changed between now and floppy disks, you can only begin to imagine how much it has changed since the 1970s and how cumbersome compiling all of this data, let alone securing it, must have been. I digress.

Once Turyshev and his team were able to assemble the more-complete data picture, they were able to isolate the source of acceleration: that anisotropic thermal radiation. Again, Bruce Betts:

Why was the thermal emission from the spacecraft anisotropic and slowing the spacecraft down? First of all, because the Pioneer spacecraft were spin-stabilized and almost always pointed their big dishes towards Earth. Second of all, because two sources of thermal radiation (heat) were then on the leading side of the spacecraft. The nuclear power sources, more formally Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), emitted heat towards the back side of the dishes. When the dishes reflected or re-radiated this heat, it went in the direction of travel of the spacecraft. Also, the warm electronics box for the spacecraft was on the leading side of the spacecraft, causing more heat to spill that direction. Photon pressure, the same type of thing used in solar sailing, then preferentially pushed against the direction of travel, causing a tiny, but measurable, deceleration of the spacecraft – the Pioneer Anomaly.

At the end of the day, there are a few take-home lessons to be learned. First, Occam’s Razor proved itself once again (some of the suggestions to account for the Pioneer Anomaly were the need to invoke a new type of exotic physics). The second is that you can’t just apply Occam’s Razor and say that anisotropic thermal radiation is the simplest theory and therefore correct, you have to painstakingly collect all of the data needed to prove it — and more importantly, you have to have the experts that are willing to put forth the years decades of research to solve the mystery. Finally, you take in the account that this was made possible with the help of citizen scientists and those of us that contribute to furthering our understanding of the Universe, through means such as The Planetary Society.

This new paper will undoubtedly generate more discussion about the Pioneer Anomaly and others will work to verify or disprove its results, but at this point it seems pretty safe to say that one of space physic’s mysteries is no more.


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